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Jeff Spurgeon: In New York City there are lots of ways to get to Carnegie Hall. A subway, a taxi, a walk down 57th street. You’ve just found another way to get to America’s most famous home for classical music. Welcome to Carnegie Hall Live, the broadcast series that gives a front row seat to concerts by some of the greatest artists in the world and you hear the performances exactly as they happen. You are part of the audience sharing the experience of music-making at Carnegie Hall. I’m Jeff Spurgeon.
John Schaefer: And I'm John Schaefer. I hope you’re a fan of Mahler because tonight, the San Francisco Symphony is presenting an all Mahler program, but if you’re not a fan of Mahler you might be in luck as well because tonight’s conductor, Jeff, is one of the most persuasive proponents of Mahler’s music of our time.
Jeff: He has a close relationship with his orchestra. They’ll be making great music together. Michael Tilson Thomas, music director of the San Francisco Symphony since 1995, the longest-serving music director in the orchestra’s history and together, they have quite a Mahler history of their own. MTT led San Francisco in recording all of Mahler’s orchestra works. A 17 disc Mahler project set won a combined seven Grammy awards.
John: MTT, as he is known to all and sundry, told me once that he divides his life into two periods. Period before he first heard a recording of Mahler’s Das lied von der Erde. The song of the earth and the period after that. He was about 13 when he first heard that recording. Mahler really is someone very important to Michael Tilson Thomas and he told us that the magic of Mahler’s sound is how it looks forward even to different art forms.
Michael Tilson Thomas: He anticipated in many ways also the kinds of techniques that filmmakers were going to develop. The whole idea of the structure of the film of an opening scene and the different cuts and montages and panorama shots and close-ups and two shots. The rhythm of the way a film is cut has a strong resemblance to some of the procedures that Mahler uses musically and his evolving conception of what the symphony can be.
Jeff: Conductor Michael Tilson Thomas speaking of the magic of Mahler’s visual sense in music.
John: Now, the major work on this program after intermission will be Mahler’s first symphony. Nature was a continuing source of inspiration for Mahler. In fact, right there on the first page of first symphony he wrote the phrase, vie ein naturlaut, like a natural sound. Michael Tilson Thomas says this music represents the physical surrounding of Mahler’s own childhood.
Michael: Location of the big green space the naturlaut and all these little animal bird songs inside of it and then representations of happy-go-lucky hunter-wanderer sort of music. We live above a tavern so there was all kinds of music of many different flavors being played in that tavern by people who were Moravian or Hungarian or Austrian or Romanian over many different ethnicities.
This was improvised music and then there was the military band a block or so away. Sounds of nature outside the walls of the town and the polyphonic music he was singing in the church there. The music came from the synagogue. It was all part of a certain sound world which is very clearly represented almost in [unintelligible 00:03:45] way in that First Symphony.
Jeff: Michael Tilson Thomas describing components of Mahler’s First Symphony. Now, we’re going to hear that later, but the concert will open with one of Mahler’s last works. In fact, the very last piece of symphonic music that he absolutely completed. It’s the Adagio, the opening movement of the Symphony Number 10. There’s a superstition in classical music about the curse of the Ninth Symphony. It’s something that Mahler was very aware of. After he finished his Eighth Symphony. He thought he’d beat the curse. He wrote another big piece of symphonic music, but he didn’t call it a symphony. He called it, The Song of the Earth, Das lied von der Erde. Mahler thought he’d gotten around of the curse. It didn’t quite worked out that way and that he was sort of cursed in another way at that time in his real life.
John: As he was writing the Ninth and Tenth Symphonies his personal life was falling apart. His wife, Alma Mahler, had begun an affair with the architect, Walter Gropius, who would go on to become a leader of the Bauhaus Movement and would eventually marry Gropius after Mahler’s death, but the curse of the Ninth, the curse of the Symphony Number Nine, struck Mahler as well because he didn’t finish the Tenth Symphony, but as Michael Tilson Thomas says, he did finished the first movement and he did sketch out the complete symphony. Thanks to the British musicologist, Derrick Crook, we have some idea of the message of Mahler’s Tenth. It’s dynamic and innovative with a biting sense of humor.
Michael: Curiously for me, parts of the Tenth sound almost like a piece Shostakovich or some of the hard edge Copeland, the bareness of them and the stark push and pull between these disjunct lines which Mahler’s work later so profoundly influenced.
Jeff: Michael Tilson Thomas talking about the unfinished Tenth Symphony of Mahler. We are awaiting the opening of the stage door for the arrival of concertmaster Alexander Provanchio.
Then we’ll dig, John, into this last piece of music that Mahler finished before he died.
John: Right. The Adagio was pretty much completed by Mahler himself. He also orchestrated parts of the third movement, but the rest of this sprawling Tenth Symphony was left unfinished. It is along with the Shubert unfinished symphony, one of the great works of unfinished classical music.
Jeff: As MTT mentioned, it is a forecast of the musical future. The lines and the melody that open this work are long. It’s a big sprawling melody and the emotion in the Adagio is very, very intense. Now, coming on stage music director Michael Tilson Thomas.
John: From Carnegie Hall live.
Michael: Good evening everybody. Mahler was at work on this Tenth Symphony during the last few years of his life and he very much wanted it to explore a very different territory from the other symphonies which were so much based on experiences of his early life in the little town of Iglau, but this was to be something beyond his memories and experiences. He was really trying to explore a more spiritual horizon. When a composer sets out to write a piece which is embracing a whole new spiritual territory, I always think, well, then all of us are coming out of our lives into the concert hall wondering, what is the meaning of our lives and how long is it going to take to get across town?
Then, here we are entering into this amazing piece so bearing that in mind, may I offer you a small text by the poet Rainer Maria Rilke from around the same time and from the same world as this symphony, and it says, “I live my life in growing orbits, in concentric rings that stretch themselves out through the substance of the world. I may not attain the last ring, but trying will be my life. I’m circling around God, around the ancient tower, and I’ve been circling now for a thousand years, and I still don’t know am I a falcon, a storm, or a great song?” This is Mahler Tenth.
John: From Carnegie Hall that is Michael Tilson Thomas leading the San Francisco Symphony in a performance of The Adagio, the opening movement, and the only completed movement from Mahler’s Symphony Number 10 in F-sharp Minor. I’m John Schaefer backstage here at Carnegie Hall with my colleague Jeff Spurgeon. Fun hearing MTT, Michael Tilson Thomas, comparing Mahler to filmmaker because there are parts of that piece that seem to look ahead to some of the great film score music of the 1030s.
Jeff: We’ll have that experience again in the First Symphony that we’ll hear on the second part of this program, but you’re absolutely right about the broad screen, the widescreen sound of Mahler, and as MTT said, that’s evident in the melody that pours through this thing. It is a soaring, broad, rich melody and it just keeps me in turned over and over by Mahler in this very unusual Adagio to open a symphony.
John: Of course, Mahler passed away before he could complete the symphony. There are sketches for the rest of the movements. There’s even some orchestrations of the third movement, but this is the only echtMahler that we have at the Symphony Number 10 as he joins the list of composers who succumbed to the so-called curse of the nine.
Jeff: Yes, it was Shubert who said the world was just not ready to hear what was going to in the Tenth Symphony. That’s why it alluded so many composers.
John: Beethoven, Schubert, Dvorak, Anton Bruckner and then Gustav Mahler.
Jeff: Well, penicillin would have allowed them to have a much better chance, would allow them to beat the curse, but he died before that was discovered.
John: But this Symphony Number 10, this was written at a time when Mahler’s personal was--
Jeff: In great difficulty. He lost one of his daughters who had died of an illness three or four years before. His marriage to Alma was beginning to come apart. She had taken up with Walter Gropius, the architect, who would later become the leader of the Bauhaus movement. There were lots of reasons for Mahler to be in a position to express a lot of turmoil in his music.
John: Not only in the music but in some writings in the margins of the manuscript, some of which people find very disturbing and which Alma Mahler tried to suppress for a while before deciding that this needed to be seen.
Jeff: As part of just simply the historical record.
John: As the document that was. Alma Mahler, a remarkable figure herself, she inspired a lot of the music we're hearing on tonight's program, both from the beginning and end of Gustav Mahler's career. You mentioned Walter Gropius, whom she would eventually marry. She would divorce him and marry the novelist, Franz Werfel. Also, she didn't marry Oskar Kokoschka or Gustav Klimt, but those two noted painters were also associated with Alma Mahler. Michael Tilson Thomas met Alma Mahler in somewhat unusual circumstances in the late 1950s. He got a first-hand glimpse into Alma Mahler's appeal.
Michael Tilson Thomas: I actually met her when I was 12 years old in Los Angeles where she had come, an antiquarian bookshop to have the scores evaluated, appraised of the 9th symphony, some of the sketches of the 10th. I believe she also had with her the manuscript of Wozzeck which had been presented to her. I did get a momentary impression of what it was like to have Alma Mahler look directly at you and say, "SO, young man, you are a musician. One day, perhaps, you will conduct or compose, who can tell." I was 10 or 12, and she was probably 80. She was still right in there pitching, I can tell you.
Jeff: She was an incredible character. MTT also referred to her as a woman of divided loyalties which, I guess, is a kind way of saying she was a serial monogamist. The truth is that she was a powerful figure and deeply influential on Mahler's life and career and set aside her own career to support him because, at the beginning of their marriage, Mahler said, "I can't have two composers in the house." She said, "All right, I'll stop." She wrote some very, very good songs, some smaller works, not a lot, but she put her life aside in some ways for her husband.
John: Her professional life, yes.
Jeff: Yes. She died in 1964. It was actually in that year that the American satirist, Tom Lehrer, wrote a tribute to Alma Mahler. We want to share just a little bit of that song. It's going to completely change the musical flavor of this program for just a moment, but here's Tom Lehrer.
Tom Lehrer: From the day she began her beguine. [sound cut] and Walter and Franz.
John: That is Tom Lehrer and a bit of a song called Simply Alma, a tribute to the late Alma Mahler, who died in 1964 after marrying Gustav, Mahler, and Walter Gropius, and Franz Werfel, a composer, an architect, and a novelist, inspiring much of the music that the San Francisco Symphony is playing here tonight at Carnegie Hall.
Jeff: We'll be back with more Mahler from Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony in just a moment. This is Carnegie Hall Live.
Female Speaker: Here tonight, the San Francisco Orchestra.
Male Speaker: The San Francisco Symphony.
Female Speaker: San Francisco Orchestra. That's why we are here.
Female Speaker: Dudamel.
Male Speaker: Oh, not Dudamel. It's [unintelligible 00:13:30].
Female Speaker: The concert of the San Francisco.
Female John: Michael Tilson Thomas.
Female Speaker: Michael Tilson Thomas.
Female John: I love him because of his sensitivity, because of how he conducts, because how he presents the music and how it comes out. I went to San Francisco last month to listen to him.
Male Speaker: San Francisco Symphony Orchestra.
Female Speaker: Michael Tilson Thomas.
Female Speaker: [Spanish language] Philharmonica de San Francisco.
Female Speaker: Wonderful.
Jeff: It does not actually happen when you come to Carnegie Hall that you are asked who you've come to see in order to get in. If it were true, everyone that we talked to, except the one person who came to see Dudamel, would have made it into the hall tonight. Some of the audience goers at Carnegie Hall to see Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony. It's intermission. We had Mahler in the first half. We'll have more Mahler, the first symphony in the second. Backstage at Carnegie Hall with the stage doors open, musicians wandering in and out. Some going on the stage to warm up a little bit. Others, a little further backstage. I'm Jeff Spurgeon, and beside me is John Schaefer.
John: I need to hear that person who thought he or she was coming to hear Dudamel, Gustav Dudamel because when he took over the LA Philharmonic, it was a big deal.
Jeff: You bet.
John: I was in San Francisco when MTT took over the orchestra there in the mid '90.
Jeff: '95, yes.
John: There were billboards. There were big MTT's with Michael Tilson Thomas's photo on the side of all the buses. It was a big deal.
Jeff: It's been an enduring big deal. Now, 17 years in San Francisco for Michael Tilson Thomas with the symphony.
John: As you mentioned, Jeff, earlier in the broadcast, he is now the longest-serving music director in that orchestra's illustrious history. We heard them in action in the first half performing the last complete symphonic music that Mahler composed, the Adagio, from the proposed Symphony No. 10. In the second half, we'll have just a single work, but it is a Titan of a piece, the Symphony No. 1 by Mahler, written when he was just 27 years old.
Jeff: Didn't publish it though for 15 years. At the premiere performance in Prague, Mahler called this first symphony, he called it a Symphonic Poem in Two Parts, and then he tinkered. A few years later, he called it the Titan. That nickname has stuck for the symphony, but the nickname doesn't come from the Greek pantheon. It comes from a popular novel by a German romantic writer who went by the name of Jean Paul.
Then, Mahler threw out the Titan title and just called it the Symphony in D. Along the way, he was also playing with the orchestration, adding explanations, putting program notes in and taking them out. Before he conducted the US premiere here at Carnegie Hall, he told the reviewer that he didn't want the audience to know about the programming notes that he put out earlier because he said, "At a concert, one should listen, not look. Use the ears, not the eyes." I believe, we, radio broadcasters, are the only ones who've really taken that to heart.
John: There is a remarkable document in the archives of the New York Philharmonic. Gustav Mahler, of course, was the music director of the New York Philharmonic in the early-
Jeff: In his last years.
John: -years of the last century. That document is a manuscript of this Symphony No. 1 by Mahler, and it is full of amendments and cross-outs and notations by Mahler himself. Then, there is an additional set of markings in green pencil from the 1940s by the great conductor, Bruno Walter. Then, on top of that, in blue pencil are the markings of Leonard Bernstein from the 1960s. It's an incredible document of the different ways of approaching the symphony which Mahler was still changing even as he was bringing it here to New York.
Jeff: He tinkered with his own compositions, he tinkered with the compositions of other composers, too. He didn't stand on that ceremony and was open to doing lots of revisions.
John: Not only revised but at one point, withdrew an entire movement, the so-called Blumine movement or bouquet of flowers. He had originally written this as incidental music for a play. Then, in the original performances of the Symphony No. 1, this was the second movement. He then decided it didn't work. He dropped it, but it does exist as a separate piece.
Jeff: It stands alone and lots of orchestras like to play it, and audiences really like it.
John: Michael Tilson Thomas and the San Francisco Symphony have recorded it. Let's hear a little bit of this missing movement of the first symphony by Mahler.
Jeff: That is the sound of Blumine, the original second movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 1. He pulled it out after a couple of early performances. He felt it was just a little bit too sentimental to be included in what he was then calling his Symphony in D. Mahler kept tinkering with his work for almost an entire decade before he finally published it in the form that we are going to hear in a few minutes from the San Francisco Symphony and Michael Tilson Thomas from Carnegie Hall live. Backstage, I'm Jeff Spurgeon. John Schaefer is here. You are going to take us into the symphony in a wonderful way through one of the musicians in the orchestra.
John: There is an important role for the double bass, for the principal double bassist, the solo at the beginning of the third movement. The San Francisco Symphony's principal bassist is Scott Pingel. We will hear him doing this very exposed solo in Mahler's first symphony.
Scott Pingel: Mahler writes pretty awesome bass parts, definitely knows how to exploit the sonic foundation that the bass can provide, but also, ironically, gives it this lonely solo in the beginning of the third movement. According to someone I studied with whose great, great grand teacher played in the Premier under Mahler when they did Mahler on the first time, it was originally for the entire section to play. Then, the rumor goes, Mahler did not like the way it sounded. He just thought, "Oh, it's terribly out of tune. All right. Let's just try half-section. Oh, that's not good either. All right. Let's try one section. Oh, it's terrible. How about just one bass? All right. That's a little better. Try it muted. Try it all on one string."
He was experimenting a lot to try and get the sound. There's also some evidence, I suppose, that he wanted the solo to sound somewhat rustic, which is another reason why he gave it to the bass. Now, I, personally, do not ever intend to play it rustically. I still think that it should sound at least as beautiful as the tuba plays it.
John: That is the San Francisco Symphony. Principal Bass is, Scott Pingel, who certainly has the chops to play it rustically if he ever did want to. The solo that you'll hear him play in that third movement, you won't have any trouble recognizing it when it begins because it's a very familiar tune. It's Frère Jacques, or as Mahler would have known it, Bruder Martin. It's set by Mahler in a mournful minor key and both Scott Pingel and conductor Michael Tilson Thomas told us a very curious story about how and why this Frère Jacques melody made its way into this Mahler Symphony.
Michael: Well, that same tune is, of course, sung in various ways and various traditions.
Scott: Moravian, or Bahamian tradition.
Michael: There was a specific I think, Moravian tradition, Christian pagan/rituals. [Frère Jacques music].
Scott: I guess it's after Lent.
Michael: As part of the Lenten period of the year, you sing that song and actually bury for a period of time, a double bass in the ground.
Scott: The bass represents voluptuousness and earthly enjoyments, and things that need to be set aside for a time of serious reflection and penance, perhaps. Can we imagine what that bass might sound like? It probably has a fair amount of worm damage.
John: What is a strange and wonderful story. Really, Jeff, sets up the whole rationale for having the double bass take this melody right at the beginning of the third movement.
Jeff: Applying some of the background of legend and culture that Mahler sprang from, in another way, adding it into this First Symphony.
John: You heard the Bass is Scott Pingel, and the conductor, Michael Tilson Thomas
Jeff: Mahler's song cycle for voice and orchestra, Songs of a Wayfarer, is also a contributing element to this First Symphony. The main theme of the first movement of the symphony we're about to hear is taken from the Mahler song out of that, Songs of a Wayfarer cycle. The song in English is I went this morning over the field. Mahler found lots of inspiration in nature. He loved the outdoors, just as Beethoven loved the outdoors. There's one particular bird call that winds up in the First Symphony. It's a 'cuckoo', which sings in nature, in a third. Listen to it, [cuckoo]. It's a minor third, but that's alright, equivalent. It's a third. That's the 'cuckoo'.
John: 90 years after Beethoven did the same thing in his Pastoral Symphony, Mahler gives this 'cuckoo' call to the clarinet, but then he passes it on to the flute and then to the strings. He does something strange to the cuckoo's call, his 'cuckoo' sings in the interval of a fourth.
Jeff: Mahler's 'cuckoo' singing in a fourth,
John: That's a pretty sad-sounding 'cuckoo'.
Jeff: Mahler made the connection very clear in this piece and the sound that he wanted as this part of the first movement unfolds. He wrote on the very first page of the score, vie ein naturlaut, as if spoken by nature. Now, here are some thoughts from Michael Tilson Thomas on the opening of Mahler Symphony No.1.
Michael: Towards the beginning of the symphony as the [sings] slow nature of the theme is unfolding, there is a sound, a distant fanfare of horns or brass. It was originally played in the symphony by horns, which were sometimes off stage or sometimes on stage. Then Mahler changed that to an ensemble of clarinets because he realized that having hushed clarinets in the low register playing very staccato would give a ghostly, otherworldly presence to that quotation. It took it from the real world off into some spectral world.
John1: MTT, Michael Tilson Thomas talking about the opening of the Mahler Symphony Number 1.
Jeff: The nature portrait of the beginning of this piece is extraordinary, again, MTT talked about this wide orchestral palette, this widescreen scenery. It's really evident in this first movement, although I heard something today that I hadn't heard before, which also sounds like the opening music to Star Trek. The very atmospheric outer spacey theme at the beginning is present in this Symphony too. Maybe that was just me, but you'll find out for yourself as we listen.
John: As we mentioned, after hearing the Adagio from Symphony No.10. You know, a lot of Mahler's music was hugely influential on later film score composers. Mahler if you take out the 'H' in his name, 'Maler' is the German word for 'painter'.
Jeff: There you are.
John: It really was, a painter in sound.
Jeff: Beautifully so and as you say, the influences are on film composers and other composers who have serious music. They all read it even before Mahler became repopularized in the middle or later parts of the 20th century.
John: A lot of that is down to Leonard Bernstein who took these Mahler Symphonies as a personal mission, to bring them to audiences on both sides of the Atlantic because Mahler's star had dimmed even in his homeland of Austria.
Jeff: His symphonies were incredibly controversial upon their premieres. There was antisemitism as part of that influence, and also a lack of understanding about what Mahler was trying to say in his symphonies. Many of the opening performances were at least of mixed reviews, sometimes mixed at best, sometimes only a few critics understood what Mahler was doing. Sometimes they just didn't like the stuff at all. Now, we eat it up. It is practically mother's milk to symphonic audiences today,
John: Perhaps the reason he did so much revising and changing and amending of the pieces, that it did have a mixed reception. People weren't sure what the emotional tenor, "Am I supposed to be laughing at this? Is this sarcastic? Is it sad? I'm not sure what to feel."
Jeff: In a way, I find that surprising because, in our lives, we feel many emotions at once, and yet in music, we would like to have just one direction. We'd like to know what's going, know where we're headed, know what we're feeling. Mahler mixes so many of these simultaneous experiences into this music. Even in the opening movement of this First Symphony, you hear the sounds of nature. You hear the fanfares of horns and city life. You hear his childhood and his emerging adulthood. It's all happening. It's all happening.
John: We are backstage at Carnegie Hall. The San Francisco Symphony is out there for Michael Tilson Thomas and will perform now the final work on tonight's program, Mahler's Symphony No.1, from Carnegie Hall live.
Jeff: A great journey we have just been on in the music of Gustav Mahler from Carnegie Hall live, the Symphony No.1 of Mahler. The work of a young composer and yet much maturity and power in this work in a performance by Michael Tilson Thomas, and the San Francisco Symphony coming to you from Carnegie Hall live.
John: That was an audience that could not wait to get the applause going. As soon as that final note hadn't even finished ringing off here in Carnegie Hall, they were on their feet and applauding. Michael Tilson Thomas, MTT, at center stage taking a bow richly deserved.
Jeff: With all the orchestra standing too. Now as you just heard the stage door open and they just stepped backstage.
Michael: That's the way it's supposed to be played, ladies and gentlemen.
John: A conductor offstage and on as well. A little off-stage direction from MTT, who has now gone back on stage, taking a bow to this Carnegie Hall audience.
Jeff: It's amazing. This is the work as you said, Jeff, of a 27-year-old conductor learning to be an orchestral composer. Of course, he's familiar with the orchestra-
John: That's his instrument as it were.
Jeff: -but it's amazing how much of the mature Mahler we already hear in this First Symphony.
John: He was already applying techniques that he would use later on. The use of folk song, the use of atmosphere and bringing those elements developing and bring them back again and again, in the symphony. The cheers you're hearing now are MTT onstage, calling out various members of the orchestra in particular sections, who doesn't get great work in the Mahler First. The horn section and the trumpets have fabulous music to play. The tuba and the bass and the bassoon share that wonderful solo in the Frère Jacques. Wonderful solo moments all across the orchestra. The woodwinds get to do all those nature sounds, right?
Jeff: The bird songs, the oboes have a really wonderful role to play in that third movement. Of course, the solo double bass, as we mentioned earlier in the program. This is getting to what I was saying a moment ago about we see this thing recurring a lot of the later symphonies. Yes, they're big. Yes, the orchestra is enormous but the palette is so sparingly applied at times that when you do have the full orchestra it really hits you with a physical force.
John: He is able to draw those large contrasts and to build an arc in moments and over a whole symphony. That's one of the great challenges of these works for conductors is not the moments but the arc of the thing itself, much to challenge any conductor. Those cheers are for MTT taking a deep bow now before the audience at Carnegie Hall asking the San Francisco Symphony to stand and receive the applause at Carnegie Hall.
John: As we mentioned earlier in the broadcast, this is a conductor in an orchestra who have a long history with Mahler. They've recorded the complete orchestral music of Mahler, big box set, multiple Grammy Award winner, so this is about as authoritative a performance as you could ask for from MTT and the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra.
Jeff: They love the music. You can hear it and you can hear the affection in it, certainly from this audience as well. One more time, back on stage, MTT, a terrific evening of Mahler.
The first half of the program was the last symphonic piece that Mahler finished before his death, the opening movement of what was to have been his 10th Symphony and then the Mahler 1st in the second half of this program.
John: This Carnegie Hall Live broadcast coming to you from backstage and that would do it for this evening's festivities. Thanks to some of the folks who helped make tonight's broadcast possible, Clive Gillinson and the staff of Carnegie Hall. For WQXR, the technical team includes Edward Haber, Irene Trudel, Bill Sigmund and Norah[unintelligible 00:31:15].
Jeff: The radio producers are Aaron Dalton and Eileen Delahunty.
John: Christine Herskovitz is WQXR's project manager, Martha[unintelligible 00:31:26] is the executive producer, tonight's stage manager is Merrin Lazyan.
Jeff: Thank you for listening. I'm Jeff Spurgeon.
John: I'm John Schaefer. This broadcast of Carnegie Hall Live is produced by WQXR. This is Carnegie Hall live.
[00:32:06] [END OF AUDIO]
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